SECTION XIX - APPENDICES

APPENDIX E - STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

 

GENERAL 

Procedures that apply to all chemicals

PLEASE NOTE:  The following are basic procedures that apply to all classes of chemicals.  Additional Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) components follow this section, and must be used in addition to the basic SOP, for specific hazard classes (e.g., acutely toxic chemicals, carcinogens, etc.). 

Standard operating procedures (SOP) are intended to provide you with general guidance on how to safely work with a specific class of chemical or hazard.  This SOP is generic in nature.  It addresses the use and handling of substances generally or by hazard class only.  In some instances, multiple SOPs may be applicable for a specific chemical (i.e., both the SOPs for flammable liquids and carcinogens would apply to benzene).  If you have questions concerning the applicability of any items listed in this procedure, contact the Office of Health & Safety (OHS  -3775)or the Supervisor or Lead Instructor for your laboratory.  Specific written procedures are the responsibility of the Laboratory Supervisor or Instructor. 

A list of acutely toxic gases is included in Appendix A, acutely toxic chemicals in App. B, carcinogens in App. C, and reproductive hazards in App. D of this Chemical Hygiene Plan.

 

Decontamination procedures 

Personnel: Wash hands and arms with soap and water immediately after working with chemicals. 

Area: Decontamination procedures vary depending on the material being handled.  The hazard of some materials (e.g., acids) can be neutralized with other reagents (e.g., sodium bicarbonate).  All surfaces should be wiped with the appropriate cleaning agent following dispensing or handling. Waste materials generated are usually treated as a hazardous waste.

Equipment:   Decontaminate all contaminated equipment (e.g., glassware) before removing it from the designated area.

 

Designated areas 

Room number signs for laboratories using or containing acutely toxic gases, acutely toxic chemicals, carcinogens, or reproductive hazards must contain a “Designated Areas Within” and specific hazard identifier (see example in Fig. 1, Room Number Signs). 

All locations within the laboratory where such chemicals are handled should be posted with appropriate designated area caution signs. This includes all fume hoods and bench tops where such  chemicals are handled. 

See SOP's for individual hazard classes for further guidance.

 

Emergency procedures 

Emergency procedures which address response actions to fires, explosions, spills, injury to staff, or the development of signs and symptoms of overexposure must be developed.  The procedures should address as a minimum the following: 

Who to contact:  (Safety & Security [-3333], Office of Health & Safety [-3775], Laboratory Supervisor, etc.) 

The location of all safety equipment (showers, eye wash, fire extinguishers, etc.) 

The method used to alert personnel in nearby areas of potential hazards 

Special first aid treatment required by the type of material(s) handled in the laboratory.

 

Eye protection 

Eye protection must be worn at all times when handling chemicals. Ordinary (street) prescription glasses do not provide adequate protection.  (Contrary to popular opinion these glasses cannot pass the rigorous test for industrial safety glasses.) Safety glasses must meet the requirements of the Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection (ANSI.Z.87. 1 1989) and must be equipped with side shields.  Safety glasses with side shields do not provide adequate protection from splashes, therefore, when the potential for splash hazard exists, other eye protection (e.g., chemical goggles or face protection, such as a face shield) must be worn.

 

Eye washes 

Where the eyes of any person may be exposed to chemicals, suitable facilities (eyewashes) for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes shall be provided within the work area for immediate emergency use.

 

Fume hoods 

Manipulation of certain types of chemicals should be carried out in a fume hood.  If the use of a fume hood proves impractical, refer to the sections on special ventilation.  See SOP's for individual hazard classes for further guidance.

 

Glove (dry) box 

Certain chemicals must be handled in a glove box rather than a fume hood.  OHS or the Lab Supervisor/Lead Instructor will determine if this is required.

 

Gloves 

Suitable gloves shall be worn when handling chemicals.  The selection of glove materials should be made from Table 1 of this document (see page 20).

 

Hazard assessment 

Hazard assessment should focus on proper use and handling procedures, the education of employees concerning the health risk posed by chemicals in use, and on the demarcation of designated areas.

 

Protective apparel 

At a minimum, lab coats, closed toed shoes and long sleeved clothing should be worn when handling chemicals.  Additional protective clothing should be worn if the possibility of skin contact is likely, and/or depending on the type of material being used in the laboratory.

 

Safety shielding 

Safety shielding is required any time there is a risk of explosion or a highly exothermic reaction. For example, manipulations of reactive liquids, or any other materials which pose this risk, should occur in a fume hood with the sash in the lowest feasible position.  Portable shields, which provide  protection to all laboratory occupants, are acceptable.

 

Safety shower 

A safety or drench shower should be available in a nearby location where acutely toxic, flammable, carcinogenic, corrosive, pyrophoric, oxidizing, or highly reactive or water-sensitive chemicals are used.

Signs and labels 

Doorways:    The room number sign must contain a "Designated Area Within" caution where carcinogens, reproductive hazards, and/or acutely toxic chemicals are stored and/or used. 

Containers:  All chemicals must be clearly labeled with the correct chemical name, manufacturer's name and address, and health effect warning.  Handwritten labels are acceptable; chemical formulae and structural formulae are NOT acceptable. 

Special storage 

Acutely toxic, carcinogenic, or reproductive hazard chemicals should be stored in a designated area.

 

Special ventilation 

Manipulation of some chemicals outside of a fume hood may require special ventilation controls in order to minimize exposure to the material.  Fume hoods provide the best protection against exposure to many chemicals in the laboratory and are often the preferred ventilation control device.  See hazard class-specific SOP's following this section for further guidance. 

If available, consider using a biological safety cabinet for certain types of chemicals.  The biological safety cabinet is designed to remove chemicals before the air is discharged into the environment. Chemicals that are volatile, however, must not be used in a biological safety cabinet unless the cabinet is vented to the outdoors.

 

Spill response 

Anticipate spills by having the appropriate clean up equipment on hand.  The appropriate clean up supplies can be determined by consulting the Material Safety Data Sheet.  This should occur prior to the use of any chemical. 

In the event of a spill, alert personnel in the area that a spill has occurred.  Do not attempt to handle a large spill of acutely toxic, carcinogenic, corrosive, flammable, highly reactive or water-sensitive chemicals.  Vacate the laboratory immediately and call for assistance: 

-       Safety & Security (24 Hr.). x3333

§        Office of Health & Safety x3775

911 FOR MEDICAL OR FIRE EMERGENCY! 

Remain on the scene, but at a safe distance, to receive and direct safety personnel when they arrive.

 

Vacuum protection 

Evacuated glassware can implode and eject flying glass and splattered chemicals.   Vacuum work involving certain chemicals (e.g., acutely toxic chemicals) must be conducted in a fume hood, or isolated in an acceptable manner. 

Mechanical vacuum pumps must be protected using cold traps and, where appropriate, filtered to prevent particulate release.  The exhaust for the pumps must be vented into an exhaust hood.

 

Waste disposal 

Most waste chemicals should be disposed of as a hazardous waste. Wherever possible, attempt to design research in a manner that reduces the quantity of waste generated.  Questions regarding waste pick up should be directed to the Office of Health & Safety.  This office can also assist you in minimizing waste generation. 

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR:  ACUTELY TOXIC GASES 

A list of acutely toxic gases is included in Appendix A of the chemical hygiene plan.

 

Securing of gas cylinders 

Cylinders of compressed gases must be handled as high energy sources.  When storing or moving a cylinder, have the cap securely in place to protect the stem.  Use suitable racks, straps, chains or stands to support cylinders.

 

Designated area 

The room number sign for the laboratory must contain a “Designated Areas Within” identifier with "Acutely Toxic Gas" identifier. 

All locations within the laboratory where acutely toxic gases are handled should be demarcated with designated area caution tape and/or posted with designated area caution signs. 

This includes all fume hoods and bench tops where the acutely toxic gases are handled.

 

Fume hoods 

Manipulation of acutely toxic gases should typically be carried out in a fume hood.  All areas where acutely toxic gases are stored or manipulated must be labeled as a designated area.

 

Glove (dry) box 

Some processes involving acutely toxic gases may be performed in a properly vented glove box rather than a fume hood.

 

Safety shielding 

Safety shielding is required any time there is a risk of explosion, splash hazard or a highly exothermic reaction.  All manipulations of acutely toxic gases which pose this risk should occur in a fume hood with the sash in the lowest feasible position.  Portable shields, which provide protection to all laboratory occupants, are acceptable.

 

Safety shower 

A safety or drench shower should be available in a nearby location where the acutely toxic gases are used.

 

Signs and labels 

Doorways: The room number sigh must contain a Designated Area Within caution where carcinogens, reproductive hazards, and/or acutely toxic gases are stored or used. 

Containers: All acutely toxic gas cylinders must be clearly labeled with the correct chemical name.  Handwritten labels are acceptable; chemical formulae and structural formulae are NOT acceptable.  A label for acutely toxic gases is available.

 

Special storage 

Acutely toxic gases, if used, must be stored in a designated area.  Special ventilation of the stored cylinders is required and should be inspected and approved by OHS. 

Continuous monitoring devices which will alert staff of a release of the acutely toxic gas, and/or automatic shut off capability is required for certain gases. 

The quantity of an acutely toxic gas that may be stored in a laboratory will be determined on a case-by-case basis by the Office of Health & Safety. 

 

Special ventilation 

Manipulation of toxic gases outside of a fume hood will require special ventilation controls in order to minimize exposure to the material.  Fume hoods provide the best protection against exposure to acutely toxic gases in the laboratory and are the preferred ventilation control device.  Always attempt to handle acutely toxic gases in a fume hood.  If your research does not permit the handling of acutely toxic gases in your fume hood you must contact OHS to review the adequacy of all special ventilation.

 

Waste disposal 

All empty or partially filled acutely toxic gas cylinders should be returned to the supplier.  If the supplier does not accept empty or partially filled cylinders, contact Health & Safety personnel concerning disposal.

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR:  ACUTELY TOXIC CHEMICALS 

A list of acutely toxic chemicals is included in Appendix B of the chemical hygiene plan. 

Decontamination procedures 

Personnel: Thoroughly wash hands, arms and any other areas of the body which may have come in contact with acutely toxic chemicals, with large amounts of soap and water. Do not touch eyes or mouth with your hands immediately after using such chemicals.  IF ANY SIGNS OR SYMPTOMS OF OVEREXPOSURE OCCUR, SEEK IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION BY CALLING 911 AND/OR THE CONTROL CENTER AT (800) 432-6866! 

Area: Decontamination procedures vary depending on the material being used. All surfaces should be wiped with the appropriate cleaning agent following dispensing or manipulations.  Waste materials generated should be treated as a hazardous waste.  NEVER allow acutely toxic chemicals to be discharged to the sewer drain. 

Equipment: Decontaminate vacuum pumps or other contaminated equipment (e.g., glassware) before removing them from the designated area. 

 

Designated area 

The room number sign must contain a "Designated Areas Within" identifier and appropriate hazard warning. 

All locations within the laboratory where acutely toxic chemicals are used or stored should be posted with designated area caution signs.  This includes all fume hoods and bench tops where the acutely toxic chemicals are handled. 

Where feasible, acutely toxic chemicals should be manipulated over plastic-backed disposable paper work surfaces. 

These disposable work surfaces minimize work area contamination and simplify clean up.

 

Emergency procedures 

Emergency procedures should include special first aid supplies (e.g., syrup of ipecac for possible inducement of vomiting, if appropriate), and treatment required by the type of acutely toxic chemicals used in the laboratory.

 

Eye washes 

Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to toxic chemicals, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided in the work area for immediate emergency use.

 

Fume hoods 

Manipulation of acutely toxic chemicals should be carried out in a fume hood or, in some cases, a glove box.

 

Glov e (dry) box 

Certain acutely toxic chemicals must be used in a glove box rather than a fume hood.  OHS or the Lab Supervisor/Lead Instructor will determine if this is required.

 

Hazard Assessment 

Focus on proper use and handling procedures, education of employees and students concerning the health hazards/ signs of overexposure associated with acutely toxic chemicals, proper hygiene, and on the demarcation of designated areas.

 

Signs and labels

Doors: The room number sign must contain a "Designated Area Within" caution acutely toxic chemicals are stored or used. 

Containers: As with all chemicals, acutely toxic chemicals must be clearly labeled with the correct chemical name. 

Handwritten labels are acceptable; chemical formula or structural formula (alone) are NOT acceptable.  A special supplemental label for acutely toxic chemicals is available.

 

Special Storage 

Acutely toxic chemicals must be stored in a designated area.

 

Spill Response 

Do not attempt to handle a spill of acutely toxic chemicals.  Vacate the laboratory immediately and call for assistance (OHS and/or campus security). 

Remain on the scene, but at a safe distance, to receive and direct emergency personnel upon their arrival.

Waste disposal 

All materials contaminated with acutely toxic chemicals must be disposed of as hazardous waste. Whenever possible, design procedures that reduce or minimize the quantity of acutely toxic chemicals used and disposed of as hazardous waste.

 

Gary Lee
Director of Environmental Health
4601 College Blvd.
Farmington, NM  87401
(505) 566-3063 or (505) 566-3190